Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) Bioenergy & Sustainability

A collective effort with contributions from 137 experts from 82 institutions in 24 countries, this assessment report looks at how bioenergy expansion and its impacts perform in the energy, food, environmental and climate security, sustainable development and innovation nexus in both developed and developing regions.


It outlines how:


development of bioenergy can replenish a community’s food supply by improving management practices and land soil quality

● new technologies can provide communities with food security, fuel, economic and social development while effectively using water, nutrients and other resources

● the use of bioenergy, if done thoughtfully, can actually help lower air and water pollution

● bioenergy initiatives monitored and implemented, hand in hand with good governance, can protect biodiversity, and provide ecosystems services

● efficiency gains and sustainable practices of recent bioenergy systems can help contribute to a low-carbon economy by decreasing greenhouse gas emissions and assisting carbon mitigation efforts

● with current knowledge and projected improvements 30% of the world’s fuel supply could be biobased by 2050.

The 11th Malaysia Plan 2016-2020

With 2020 now just five years away, the Eleventh Malaysia Plan is the next critical step in Malaysia's journey to become an advanced nation that is inclusive and sustainable. It will be premised on the Malaysian National Development Strategy that will focus on rapidly delivering high impact outcomes to both the capital economy and people economy at affordable cost, National Biomass Strategy 2020 included.


To achieve the voluntary target of reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission intensity of GDP by up to 40% in the year 2020, compared to 2005 levels, various mitigation measures were undertaken during the Tenth Plan. The target will continue to be the focus of Eleventh Plan to improve environmental quality by undertaking climate change mitigation, adapting to its impact, and increasing efforts to conserve ecological assets.



An Economic Impact Analysis of the U.S. Biobased Products Industry: A Report to the Congress of the United States of America

This report is a joint publication of the Duke Center for Sustainability & Commerce and the Supply Chain Resource Cooperative at North Caroline State University, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) BioPreferred Program. It was prepared for the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) BioPreferred® program and the Congress of the United States of America as mandated in Section 9002 of the 2014 Farm Bill (the Agricultural Act of 2014; P.L. 113-79).


It seeks to answer the six following important questions regarding the contributions of the biobased products industry in the United States:
(i)    the quantity of biobased products sold;

(ii)   the value of the biobased products;

(iii)  the quantity of jobs created; (iv)    the quantity of petroleum displaced;

(v)   other environmental benefits; and
(vi)  areas in which the use or manufacturing of biobased products could be more effectively used, including identifying any technical and economic obstacles and recommending how those obstacles can be overcome.

Advances in Biofuels

This publication discusses the Biofuels Opportunity in Malaysia, Biomass Conversion, Biodiesel Production, Enzymatic Biofuels and Algal Biofuels.


The prospect, challenges and opportunities on Biofuels in Malaysia is being reviewed in Chapter 1. The R&D on biofuels in Malaysia was first commenced in 1980s and since then its commercialisation progressed at a slow pace with many uncertainties. Until recently, it has gained much attention and popularity not just in Malaysia but in many parts of the world, mainly rooted in some advantages it has over fossil fuels. There are at least three different generations of biofuels, i.e. first-generation biofuels, second-generation biofuels and third-generation biofuels.

Availability of Biomass Residues for Co-Firing in Peninsular Malaysia: Implications for Cost and GHG Emissions in the Electricity Sector

Fossil fuels comprise 93% of Malaysia’s electricity generation and account for 36% of the country’s 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The government has targeted the installation of 330 MW of biomass electricity generation capacity by 2015 to avoid 1.3 Mt of CO2 emissions annually and offset some emissions due to increased coal use. One biomass option is to co-fire with coal, which can result in reduced GHG emissions, coal use, and costs of electricity. A linear optimization cost model was developed using seven types of biomass residues for Peninsular Malaysia. Results suggest that about 12 Mt/year of residues are available annually, of which oil-palm residues contribute 77%, and rice and logging residues comprise 17%. While minimizing the cost of biomass and biomass residue transport, co-firing at four existing coal plants in Peninsular Malaysia could meet the 330 MW biomass electricity target and reduce costs by about $24 million per year compared to coal use alone and reduces GHG emissions by 1.9 Mt of CO2. Maximizing emissions reduction for biomass co-firing results in 17 Mt of CO2 reductions at a cost of $23/t of CO2 reduced.

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